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DAIMYO of

MUSASHI PROVINCE

 

 

 


 

Tokugawa

 

  • Domain: Edo
  • Stipend: 5,000,000 koku
  • Class: Shogun
  • Headquarters: Edo Castle (Flatland)

Family descended from Nitta Yoshishige ( -1202), grandson of Minamoto Yoshiie (Seiwa-Genji).

Succession

  • Minamoto Yoshiie
  • ...
  • Yoshishige ( -1202)
  • Yoshisue
  • ...
  • Arichika
  • Chikauji
  • ...
  • Yasuchika (1369-1412)
  • Nobumitsu (1390-1465)
  • Chikatada (1418-1480)
  • Nagachika (1442-1510)
  • Nobutada (1489-1531)
  • Kiyoyasu (1511-1536)
  • Hirotada (1526-1549)
  • Ieyasu (15431616) - 1st Tokugawa shogun (16031605) 
  • Hidetada (15791632, shogun 16051623) 
  • Iemitsu (16041651, shogun 16231651) 
  • Ietsuna (16411680, shogun 16511680) 
  • Tsunayoshi (16461709, shogun 16801709) 
  • Ienobu (16621712, shogun 17091712) 
  • Ietsugu (17091716, shogun 17131716) 
  • Yoshimune (16841751, shogun 17161745) 
  • Ieshige (17111761, shogun 17451760) 
  • Ieharu (17371786, shogun 17601786) 
  • Ienari (17731841, shogun 17871837) 
  • Ieyoshi (17931853, shogun 18371853) 
  • Iesada (18241858, shogun 18531858) 
  • Iemochi (18461866, shogun 18591866) 
  • Yoshinobu (18371913, shogun 1867 )

Notable Ancestors

  • Tokugawa Yoshisue

4th son of Yoshishige. In the beginning of the 13th century he settled at Tokugawa (Kozuke) and took the name of that place. He is often called Tokugawa Shiro.

  • Tokugawa Chikauji

Son of Arichika and descended from Yoshisue in the 8th generation. He witnessed the ruin of the Nitta in their war against the Ashikaga. Threatened with death, he fled disguised as a bonze to the Mikawa province. Having arrived at the village of Sakai, he became a domestic in the household of Gorozaemon, the chief of the village, who obliged him to marry his daughter. In 1367 he had a son, Tadahiro, who kept the name of Sakai and is the ancestor of the family of that name. The following year, having lost his wife, Chikauji went to the village of Matsudaira. There he married the daughter of Nobushige, chief of the village, and again had a son, Yasuchika, born in 1359, who took the name of Matsudaira. Chikauji is believed to have died in 1407, but the documents of that epoch are not reliable and dates, as far back as the 16th century, can be taken only approximately.

  • Tokugawa Yasuchika (1369-1412)

Was in charge of the castle of Iwatsu, then of Okazaki (Mikawa), and governor of the province.

  • Tokugawa Nobumitsu (1390-1465)

Son of Yasuchika. He strengthened the authority of his family in the province. He shaved his head and received the name of Izumi-Nyudo.

  • Tokugawa Chikatada (1418-1480)

Son of Nobumitsu, was Shuri no suke. Some of his vassals, the Suzuki, the Miyake, the Nasu, the Abe, and others, joined their forces and besieged him in his castle of Iwatsu, but Chikatada completely defeated them. Soon after, he shaved his head and took the name of Saichu.

  • Tokugawa Nagachika (1442-1510)

Son of Chikatada. He fought Imagawa Ujichika, governor of Suruga, who attempted to occupy Mikawa.

  • Tokugawa Nobutada (1489-1531)

Son of Nagachika, resided at the castle of Anjo (Mikawa), and in the midst of the civil wars, which were continuously waged about him, was able to retain all his hereditary possessions.

  • Tokugawa Kiyoyasu (1511-1536)

Son of Nobutada, was murdered at the age of 25 by one of his vassals, Abe Masatoyo.

  • Tokugawa Hirotada (1526-1549)

Son of Kiyoyasu, was under the tutorship of Abe Sadayoshi. Taking advantage of his youth, his uncle Serata Nobusada sought to supplant him, but Sadayoshi took Hirotada to Ise and interested Imagawa Yoshimoto in his cause, who re-established him in his castle of Okazaki. In 1541 he married the daughter of Mizuno Tadamasa, lord of Kariya, and the following year he had a son, who was Ieyasu. In 1545, at the death of Tadamasa, the latter's son, Nobumoto, made an alliance with the Oda of Owari, and Hirotada, repudiating his wife, sent her back to her brother. War ensued between Hirotada and Oda Nobuhide. In 1547 he asked Imagawa Yoshimoto for help, and sent his son Ieyasu to him as hostage, but Nobuhide succeeded in getting possession of the child and took him to Nagoya. Hirotada marched against Nobuhide and defeated him, but he died soon after in his castle of Okazaki.

  • Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616)

1st Tokugawa shogun, ruled from 1603 to 1605.

Born at the castle of Okazaki (Mikawa), he received the name of Takechiyo. In 1547, his father having sought help from Imagawa Yoshimoto against Oda Nobuhide, sent, as was customary, Takechiyo with fifty other young samurai as hostages to Suruga. During the journey, a certain Norimitsu, Hirotada's vassal, stopped the train and delivered Takechiyo into the hands of Nobuhide, who placed him in custody in the Kato family of Atsuta (Owari). Nobuhide then offered peace to Hirotada but on such hard conditions that the latter preferred to continue the war, and Takechiyo was confined in the small temple Tenno-bo, where he had to undergo many hardships, notwithstanding the devotedness of O Cha no Tsubone. At the death of Hirotada in 1549, the prince of Mikawa was in great perplexity. Peace had been concluded between the Imagawa and the Oda, but Takechiyo always remained a hostage.

In 1554, at the age of 12, he for the first time put on a coat of arms. Two years later, at the ceremony of the genbuku, he received the name of Motonobu. In 1558 he married the daughter of Sekiguchi Chikanaga, vassal of the Imagawa, and soon after received permission to return to his own province, where he changed his name to that of Motoyasu. He was scarcely at Okazaki, when he began to make  preparations for war against Nobunaga, who was threatening to attack Mikawa. Having regained possession of his two castles of Terabe and Hirose, as well as the western portion of Mikawa province, he entered Suruga. At that very time in 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto was attacking Nobunaga, but was defeated and killed at Okehazama (Owari). In 1561 Motoyasu, having forced his uncle Mizuno Nobumoto to submit, after defeating him at Ishigase and at Kariya, returned to Okazaki to settle the terms of peace with Nobunaga. He then applied himself to restore order in his province, established the Bugyo, then in 1565, in order to free himself from the Imagawa and to assert his independence, he put the name Motoyasu (a character of which had been given to him by Yoshimoto) aside and took that of Ieyasu, by which he was to be henceforth known and under which he has become so renowned.

In 1567 he received the title of Mikawa no kami, then obtained permission from the emperor to keep the name of Tokugawa for his own family, leaving that of Matsudaira to the lateral branch of the Nitta and the Serata families. At that time, he became acquainted with the famous Takeda Shingen and made an alliance with him against Imagawa Ujizane. The latter, attacked  by his two foes, was routed and dispossessed of his domains, Shingen taking Suruga, Ieyasu receiving Totomi. In 1570, leaving his son Nobuyasu at Okazaki, Ieyasu went to Hikuma, which name he changed to Hamamatsu, and built a castle there. His fame spread by degrees and all the former vassals of the Imagawa offered him their services. At this time, he with 10,000 men aided Nobunaga to triumph over the Ashikaga and Asai at Anegawa (Omi). Meanwhile, Takeda Shingen was fighting the Hojo of Odawara, who were trying to take the province of Suruga from him. He asked Ieyasu for help but was refused and war soon began. In 1571 Shingen entered Totomi and besieged the castles of Takatenjin, Yoshida, Nire, etc. Uesugi Kenshin attacked Shinano, and Shingen had to face this new enemy; but the following year, war recommenced between the two rivals, and Ieyasu found himslf besieged in Hamamatsu. He sent to Nobunaga for help, and the latter sent him a great body of men under the command of Sakuma Morinobu. In the beginning of 1572, Shingen with 40,000 men was camping at Mikatagahara and burned all the surroundings of the castle of Hamamatsu, but Ieyasu held his position. To induce him to accept battle, Shingen retired to Iidani and Ieyasu left his castle and camped at Mikatagahara. He was at once attacked and defeated. Morinobu fled and Ieyasu was preparing for death, when one of his vassals, Natsume Masayoshi, whom he had left at Hamamatsu, arrived in haste, and obliged his lord to return to the castle. With a small body of faithful samurai he boldly met death, a sacrifice to his master's welfare. Having returned to Hamamatsu, Ieyasu, on the following night, made a sortie with 400 men, and attacked the enemy at daybreak. The vanquished of the preceding day came to his rescue, and defeat was soon changed into a decided victory.

The following year in 1573, war was resumed, but was interrupted for some time by Shingen's death. Katsuyori, his son, renewed the struggle and in 1574 invaded Totomi. This time also, Ieyasu, with Oda Nobunaga's help, defeated his enemy at Nagashino. A truce followed which lasted for several years, during which time both parties prepared for a final effort.

In 1579 the eldest son of Ieyasu, Nobuyasu, was accused of having friendly relations with the Takeda, whereupon his father called him to Hamamatsu, and after an investigation, invited him to commit harakiri. In 1581, war began and Ieyasu took the castle of Takatenjin from Katsuyori. The following year, an expedition conducted by Nobunaga and Ieyasu was directed against Katsuyori. It ended with the ruin of the Takeda at Tenmoku-zan (Kai), and Ieyasu received the Suruga province. He then paid a visit to Nobunaga in his castle of Azuchi, and Akechi Mitsuhide was chosen to receive so high a dignitary. From here, he went to Kyoto and thence to Osaka, in which latter city he heard of the murder of Nobunaga. Not having enough troops with him to oppose Mitsuhide, he hastened to Mikawa, gathered a small army and marched towards Kyoto, but at Atsuta, he heard of the defeat and death of Mitsuhide. He returned to Okazaki and did not take part in the campaign of Shizugatake (1583). The following year, he accepted the advances made by Oda Nobuo and joined him to fight Hideyoshi. The army of the latter was defeated at Komaki-yama (Owari), but soon after, Ieyasu deserted his ally, and made peace with the future Taiko, confirming it by his marriage with Asahi no kata, Hideyoshi's daughter. In the following years, he busied himself with the administration of his domains.

In 1590 Ieyasu resumed his military life in a campaign against the Hojo of Odawara. In this expedition he gained the eight provinces of Kanto, but not those of Shimotsuke and Awa. He then had a revenue of 2,557,000 koku, which enabled him freely to distribute domains among those who for thirty years had been fighting in his interests. As his residence, he chose the small port of Edo, in Musashi, and on the ruins of the fortress built there in the 15th century by Ota Dokan, he erected an immense castle. He found a pretext for not taking part in the Korean expedition. In 1598 Hideyoshi, who had chosen him as one of the Go-Tairo, called him near his person. When on the point of death, he ordered Ieyasu to lead the army from Korea back, and most particularly entrusted to him the guardianship of his son Hideyori. After the Taiko's death, Ieyasu installed himself in the castle of Fushimi and began to rule as sole master. Troubles soon rose between him and the great daimyo who accused Ieyasu of usurping the power of his ward. The leaders of this faction were Maeda Toshiie and Ishida Kazushige. Ieyasu, through much cunning, was able to bring Toshiie to his side. But many daimyo returned to their domains, plainly showing their dissatisfaction. Among them were Ukita Hideie, Mori Terumoto, Uesugi Kagekatsu, etc. The last mentioned, in particular, so openly refused to recognize the authority of Ieyasu, that the latter soon opened a campaign against him. He had scarcely left Fushimi, going north, when his enemies issued a proclamation accusing him of 13 serious charges and calling to arms all the vassals that remained faithful to the Taiko. Ieyasu's adherents, however, were not idle, and prepared for battle. Thus, at very short notice, Japan was divided into two camps.

The war began in August 1600. Hosokawa Fujitaka, Ieyasu's vassal, was attached in the castle of Tanabe (Tango), and resisted heroically. Torii Mototada defended Fushimi well, but the assailants took the castle and Mototada died in battle. Meanwhile, Fukushima Masanori and Ikeda Terumasa, allied to the Tokugawa family, marched toward the East and occupied the castles of Kiyosu and Gifu. There, Nobunaga's grandson, Hidenobu, whom Ishida Kazushige had won to his party, was taken prisoner and confined to Koya-san. Ieyasu however had come to Oyama (Shimotsuke), where he learned what had happened since his departure. He hastened to retrace his steps and gathering an army of 80,000 men, encountered Kazushige's army in Mino, 130,000 strong. On October 21, 1600, a battle took place at Sekigahara where Ieyasu gained a complete victory over his enemies and 40,000 heads of the enemy were the trophy of the day. This success gave Ieyasu undisputed authority, which he used most arbitrarily. Of his former adversaries, the principal, Ishida Kazushige, Konishi Yukinaga, Ankokuji Ekei, etc. were beheaded at Kyoto; Ukita Hideie, Oda Hidenobu, Chosokabe Morichika, Maeda Toshimasa, Masuda Nagamori, Tachibana Muneshige, Niwa Nagashige, and others were deprived of their domains; others again, such as Mori Terumoto, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Satake Yoshinobu, Akita Sanesue, etc. who submitted to the victor, found their revenues considerably reduced. His adherents, the Kobayakawa, Date, Kato, Mogami, Asano, Fukushima, Gamo, Ikeda, Kuroda, Hosokawa, Todo, Tanaka, Yamanouchi, Okudaira, Ii, etc. received very large domains, and the distribution of fiefs was made in such a manner that the last to submit to the new power (tozama daimyo) always found themselves near one or several of the ancient vassals (fudai daimyo), who watched them so as to prevent even the possibility of a rebellion.

Ieyasu, now securely established in power, showered greater honors on the person of the Emperor than had thus far been accorded to him, but reserved the executive power to himself. Installed in Fushimi, he summoned the learned Fujiwara Seika and Hayashi Doshun to help him with their sagacity in the administration of affairs. He ordered the maps of the provinces and districts to be revised: brought the ancient books of the Ashikaga-gakko and Kanazawa-bunko, to Fushimi or to Edo, and had the most important and rarest rewritten. It was he too who revived the edicts against Christianity and increased their severity. It was only in 1603 that he received from the Emperor Go-Yozei, the title of Sei-i-tai shogun and those connected with it, such as the titles of Genji no choja, Jun'a-in, and Shogaku-in no Betto. Two years later, he abdicated in favor of his son Hidetada, then 26 years old, his principle motive being to secure the succession of his high dignity to his family. He retired to Sunpu (Shizuoka), and whilst taking an active part in the government, he devoted his leisure to literature and poetry.

In 1611 Ieyasu went to Kyoto and had an enterview with Hideyori, to whom he betrothed his granddaughter, Sen-hime, daughter of the Shogun Hidetada. Hideyori, having become of age, was, notwithstanding all the precautions taken by Ieyasu and the surveillance exercised over him, taught by his surroundings and in particular by his mother Yodo-gimi, to look upon Ieyasu as the usurper of his power. Thus the relations between him and the Tokugawa became steadily more strained, and the latter only waited for an opportune moment to get rid of him. Ieyasu induced Hideyori to rebuild the Hoko-ji temple at great expense. It had been previously built by Hideyoshi but was destroyed an earthquake in 1596. Ieyasu well knew that the money used in this pious work, would not be employed in recruiting soldiers. When the temple was finished, Hideyori ordered a large bell to be cast, and invited Ieyasu to the opening ceremony. Now, it happened that in the inscription placed on the bell, the two characters of the name of Ieyasu were employed, separated one from the other. The ex-Shogun affected to be insulted at this imprecation against him, bringing down the curse of heaven. He stopped the proceedings of the feast, asked an explanation and even wanted to force the emperor to suppress the ill-omened inscription. Hideyori refused to submit to such unreasonableness, and, some time after, Ieyasu and Hidetaka, at the head of 50,000 men, were camping under the walls of Osaka. The castle was well fortified, and Hideyori's generals Ono Harunaga, Sanada Yukimura, Goto Mototsugu, etc. had assembled 60,000 samurai, mostly ronin of ancient daimyo, dispossessed by Ieyasu. Every man was determined to sell his life dearly. After some doubtful encounters, Ieyasu sent O Cha no Tsubone to Yodo-gimi, and through her intermediary, peace was restored, Hideyori agreeing to dismiss his troops and to fill the moats of the castle of Osaka. Thus ended what is known in history as the winter campaign of Osaka (Osaka fuyu no eki), because it took place in the last months of the year 1614.

Ieyasu had scarcely returned to Sunpu, when new difficulties arose. Hideyori consented to the demolition of the exterior defenses, and to the filling up of the moats, but he asked that his soldiers should be recognized as regular troops, which request met with a flat refusal. He then proposed to exchange his provinces of Settsu, Kawachi, and Izumi for those of Awa, Sanuki, and Iyo, in Shikoku. Ieyasu offered him those of Shimosa, Kazusa, and Awa (Tokaido), but to accept this proposition would have been putting himself completely into the power of the former. Hideyori refused and the two parties again prepared for war. In May 1615 Ieyasu gathered his army and one month after, despite the bravery shown by the besieged garrison, Osaka fell. Hideyori and Yodo-gimi perished in the conflagration of the castle. This second siege is called the summer campaign of Osaka (Osaka natsu no eki). The power of the Tokugawa was now supreme and secure for a long period.

Before returning to Suruga, Ieyasu promulgated Regulations for the samurai (Buke-hatto) in 13 chapters, taken from the Joei-shikimoku and the Kenbu-shikimoku Codes. He likewise established the Kuge Code (Kuge-hatto) in 17 chapters after having consulted the Kanpaku Nijo Akizane on the matter. In the beginning of 1616, soon after his return to Sunpu, Ieyasu fell ill. He received the title of Dajo-daijin from the Emperor, but in the month of May, departed this life at the age of 74. Buried temporarily at Kuno-san, near Shizuoka, in the following year his body was carried with great solemnity to Nikko, where a magnificent temple was erected in his honor. He received the posthumous name of Toshogu.

Ieyasu was certainly a genius. He was a skilful warrior and a shrewd politician. He finished the work of pacifying the country, a work begun by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, and endowed it with a powerful organization, securing the power to his own family for the next two-and-a-half centuries.

  • Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632)

2nd Shogun of the Tokugawa family, from 1605 to 1622.

3rd son of Ieyasu, was born at the castle of Hamamatsu, and at the age of 10, was sent to Kyoto to stay with Hideyoshi. In 1600, he accompnaied his father in the projected campaign against Uesugi Kagekatsu and went as far as Utsunomiya but hearing that Ishida Kazushige had risen in arms, he marched South through Tosando, but allowed himself to be delayed at the siege of Ueda (Shinano) for 15 days and arrived in Mino after the battle of Sekigahara. Ieyasu, in his anger, refused to receive him, but at the intervention of Honda Masazumi consented to give him audience.

In 1605, Hidetada was named Shogun. He aimed at maintaining and developing his father's policy. He took part with him in the two sieges of Osaka (1614-1615). In 1620, his daughter Kazuko married the emperor Go-Mi-no-o. He continued to persecute the Christians and under the most severe penalty forbade any Japanese to go out of the country. It is he who stopped commercial relations with all foreigners except the Dutch, Chinese and Koreans.

In 1622, Hidetada abdicated the shogunate in favor of his son Iemitsu and died ten years later, at the age of 53 years. He was buried in the temple Zojo-ji, at Shiba (Edo) and received the posthumous name of Taitoku-in.

  • Tokugawa Iemitsu (1603-1651)

3rd Tokugawa Shogun, from 1622 to 1651.

Eldest son of Hidetada, he was educated by Naito Tadashige. He became Shogun at the age of 19, when his father abdicated, and devoted all his time to the study and perfecting of the government methods introduced by Ieyasu. He closed the country entirely to all foreign commercial transactions; in 1636, forbade the building of ships which would permit of long voyages;  in 1638, by a cruel massacre suppressed the Shimabara insurrection; in 1640, put to death the Macao ambassadors who had come to ask for liberty of commerce; confined the Dutch who were allowed to pursue commerce with the Japanese to Deshima (Nagasaki); bore a blind and ferocious hatred to Christianity and destroyed it by a fierce persecution; made the law (Sankin-kotai) which obliged the daimyo to reside alternately at Edo, and in their domains, in which latter case they were obliged to leave their wife and children as hostages at Edo. He was a protector of Buddhism and Confucianism. For the former, in 1626 he built the Kanei-ji at Edo, and in 1634 the Eisho-ji at Kamakura. He erected a temple in honor of Confucius and protected the learned Hayashi Doshun, Nakae Toju, etc. In 1620, his sister Kazuko had been married to the emperor Go-Mi-no-o, and from this union was born a daughter (Myosho-tenno) who was raised to the throne at the age of 7. Thus, Iemitsu's influence was great both at Kyoto and at Edo. To prevent any attempt of insubordination on the part of the Imperial Court, he required that a prince of royal blood should be always at the head of the Ueno (Edo) and Nikko temples, whom he was ready to oppose to the legitimate sovereign should he prove troublesome.

By all these maneuvers, Iemitsu brought the government of the Shogun to the highest degree of power. He died at the age of 47 and was buried at Nikko where a magnificent temple was erect to his memory. His posthumous name is Taiyu-in. At his death, ten of his most faithful subjects killed themselves (junshi); among these were: Hotta Masamori (daimyo of Sakura), Abe Shigetsugu (daimyo of Iwatsuki), Uchida Masanobu, Saegusa Moriyoshi, Okuyama Yasushige, etc. At the same time, more then 3,700 maids of honour were dismissed from the Palace, and of this number, over 100 shaved their heads and embraced the religious life (ama).

  • Tokugawa Ietsuna (1639-1680)

4th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1651 to 1680.

Eldest son of Iemitsu, and succeeded his father at the age of 12. In the year of his accession to the shogunate, he repressed the rebellion of Yui Shosetsu and Marubashi Chuya. Ietsuna's ministers were: Sakai Tadakiyo, Matsudaira Nobutsuna, Ii Naozumi, etc. They continued to govern according to the manner of Iemitsu. He forbade suicide (junshi) at the death of a master and prohibited any translation of European works and any writing concerning the government, Edo morals, etc. We need not wonder therefore at the great number of authors who were imprisoned or banished during his reign.

Ietsuna died at the age of 41, and as he had no children, his brother Tsunayoshi succeeded him. He was buried in the Kanei-ji (Ueno) and received the posthumous name of Gen-yu-in.

  • Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646-1709)

5th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1680 to 1709.

4th son of Iemitsu, he in 1661, received the fief of Tatebayashi (Kozuke -- 350,000 koku), and was called to succeed his brother Ietsuna who died without progeny. He was at that time 34 years old. He was a patron of letters and sciences, encouraged the military studies, worked at the reform of the calendar, founded schools, protected artists, etc. The finances being in a bad condition, he sought to improve affairs by altering the value of money and by awarding land to the hatamoto instead of giving them a pension in rice. These measures wrought a notable increase in the prices of all necessaries of life and occasioned general dissatisfaction. Tsunayoshi had acted on the advice of Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, and on representations made by the Kanjo-bugyo Ogiwara Shigehide. At that time, 30 million koku composed the revenues of the whole Empire; of which 23 million belonged to the daimyo, 3 million to the temples and hatamoto, and the remaining 4 million to the shogunate. The last sum, from which 150,000 koku were deducted, being the allowance made to the Court of Kyoto, could certainly not suffice because of the prodigality of Tsunayoshi, who had to find divers expedients to increase his finances. Owing to the influence of the bonzes, he, under the strictest penalty, forbade the killing of any living being, and had places of refuge erected for disabled or infirmed horses and dogs. Examples of the inhuman execution of this law are not wanting; thus, in 1686, a vassal of the daimyo Akita, having killed a swallow was put to death and his children sent into exile.

In 1704, Tsunayoshi, having no children, adopted his nephew, Tsunatoyo, son of Tsunashige, who took the name Ienobu. The fief of Fuchu (Kai), which he possessed up to that time, passed to Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, who then was continually rising in favor. Abusing the influence he had acquired over the mind of the weak and aged Shogun, Yoshiyasu asked that the province of Suruga be added to the fief which his son Yoshisato was to inherit. Tsunayoshi consented, but before placing his seal on the official document confirming the donation, his wife Mi-daidokoro, daughter of the ex-Kanpaku Takatsukasa Fusasuke, exasperated that such an abnormal favor should be granted, stabbed the Shogun and killed herself. Tsunayoshi was then 63 years old. He was buried at the Kanei-ji (Ueno) and received the posthuous name of Joken-in.

  • Tokugawa Ienobu (1662-1712)

6th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1709 to 1712.

Son of Tsunashige, in 1704, he was daimyo of Fuchu (Kai -- 350,000 koku) when his uncle Tsunayoshi chose him as heir. He then changed his name Tsunatoyo to Ienobu, and five years later received the title of Shogun at the age of 47 years. The first act of his reign was to abrogate the severe laws enacted by his predecessors against those who killed animals or caused them to suffer. On the petition of Arai Hakuseki, he suppressed the custom which obliged the greater number of the princes of the Imperial family to become bonzes and the princesses to become ama, and he allowed them to marry. He recoined the altered pieces of money that Tsunayoshi had introduced and gave them their former value. Ienobu took the famous and learned Arai Hakuseki with him from Kai, for he loved to follow his advice. He died at the age of 50, was buried in the Zojo-ji (Shiba) and received the posthumous name of Bunsho-in.

  • Tokugawa Ietsugu (1709-1716)

7th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1713 to 1716.

Son of Ienobu, succeeded him at the age of 4. It was in his name that a law was enacted, which obliged the daimyo of Kyushu to burn any European vessel that should land on their coasts and to kill the crew. Ietsugu died when but 7 years old, was buried in the Zojo-ji (Shiba) and received the posthumous name of Yusho-in.

  • Tokugawa Yoshimune (1677-1751)

8th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1716 to 1745.

3rd son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, of the Kii branch, he in 1697, received a revenue of 30,000 koku at Nibu (Echizen) and at the death of his two elder brothers, he became daimyo of Wakayama and chief of the Kii branch in 1705. At the death of Ietsugu, he was chosen as his successor, and though he refused the dignity of Shogun three times, he was obliged to submit to the decision of the family council. He was the 39 years old. When in power, his first endeavor was to extirpate abuses and to bring about the happiness of his people. He entrusted the affairs of justice to the upright Ooka Tadasuke; made researches for the tombs of the ancient emperors and had them repaired; ordered boxes to be placed in the cities of Edo, Kyoto and Osaka, to receive the petitions and complaints of the common people; repressed luxury and favored economy; distributed a book on popular medicine for the benefit of the poor; introduced the growing of sweet potatoes and the making of sugar; established a trade system for the mutual benefit of the provinces, etc. He was also a protector of the learned, removed the prohibition to read or translate European books, and personally supervised the printing of a great number of books, etc. In short, he became so popular by his wise administration that the people called him Kome-shogun (the Shogun of the rice). Yoshimune however did not revoke the laws closing the country to strangers, nay he redoubled the watchfulness and did much for the protection of the coasts. In 1729, a certain Ten-ichi-bo, a native of Wakayama, pretending to be the son of Yoshimune came to Edo to assert his rights but was arrested, convicted of falsehood and put to death. At the age of 68, Yoshimune abdicated in favor of his son Ieshige. He died six years later, was buried at the Kanei-ji (Useno) and received the posthumous name of Yutoku-in.

  • Tokugawa Ieshige (1712-1761)

9th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1745 to 1760.

Eldest son of Yoshimune, whom he succeeded at the age of 34. He was of a weak constitution, and left the administration of public affairs to his ministers. In 1758, the councilors of the Shogun began to fear the doctrines taught by Takenouchi Shikibu at Kyoto, wherefore he was imprisoned and 17 kuge were degraded or exiled. Ieshige abdicated at the age of 48, in favor of his son Ieharu, and died the following year. He was buried in the Zojo-ji (Shiba), and received the posthumous name of Junshin-in.

  • Tokugawa Ieharu (1737-1786)

10th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1760 to 1786.

Eldest son of Ieshige, whom he succeeded at the age of 23, he ordered Dutch books to be translated and encouraged letters and science. During his administration, in 1767, Yamagata Daini and Fujii Umon were beheaded and Takenouchi Shikibu exiled for having proclaimed the authority of the Emperor to the prejudice of that of the Shogun.

Ieharu died at the age of 50 and his son Iemoto having died before him, a successor was chosen in the Hitotsubashi branch. He was buried in the Kanei-ji (Ueno) and received the posthumous name of Shinmei-in.

  • Tokugawa Ienari (1773-1841)

11th Tokugawa Shogun, from 1786 to 1837.

Son of Hitotsubashi Harunari. In 1781 was chosen by the Shogun Ieharu to be his heir, and was only 15 years old when he succeeded him. In 1789, troubles occurred in the island of Ezo but were repressed by Matsumae Michihiro. This is the last revolt of the Ebisu mentioned in history. During the rule of Ienari, the foreign powers again renewed their efforts to enter into communication with Japan: Russia in 1792-1798-1804-1811-1814; England in 1797-1801-1803-1808-1810-1813-1818-1824; America in 1797-1806-1837; but all advances were met wtih a refusal. The Shogun ordered the daimyo of the North to keep a good watch on the coasts and to defend them. Forts were constructed in different parts of the country, communications with Annam and Luzon were interrupted, and the country was again secluded more than ever from the outside world. The famous Matsudaira Sadanobu reformed the regulations of the army of the marine, obliged the hatamoto to pass examinations on military affairs, personally inspected the coasts, etc. In 1827, Ienari received the title of Dajo-daijin; he is the only one who bore that title whilst Shogun. In 1837, Oshio Heihachiro revolted and attempted to occupy the castle of Osaka but was defeated by the Jodai Doi Toshitsura, and killed himself. Soon after, Ienari resigned the shogunate to his son Ieyoshi. He had ruled during 50 years. He died four years later, at the age of 69. He had 51 children, 31 of whom died in their youth; the others entering by adoption or by marriage into the noblest families. Ienari received teh posthumous name of Bunkyo-in and was buried in the Kanei-ji (Ueno). 

  • Tokugawa Ieyoshi (1792-1853)

  • Tokugawa Iesada (1824-1858)

  • Tokugawa Iemochi (1846-1866)

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu (18371913)

Related Branches

  • Tokugawa (Owari)
  • Tokugawa (Kii)
  • Tokugawa (Mito)

Sources

 


 

Tokugawa (Tayasu)

 

  • Domain: Edo
  • Stipend: 130,000 koku
  • Class: Sankyo
  • Headquarters: Municipal office

Branch founded by Munetake ( -1769), son of Shogun Yoshimune. It was one of the Sankyo that had no castle and resided at Edo.

Succession

  • Munetake (1716-1771, family head 1731-1771)

  • Haruaki (1753-1774, family head 1771-1774)
  • Narimasa (1779-1846, family head 1787-1836)
  • Naritaka (1810-1845, family head 1836-1839)
  • Yoshiyori - 1st tenure (1828-1876, family head 1839-1863)
  • Takachiyo (1860-1865, family head 1863-1865)
  • Iesato/Kamenosuke (1863-1940, family head 1865-1868)

  • Yoshiyori - 2nd tenure (1828-1876, family head 1868- )

Related Branches

  • Tokugawa (Hitotsubashi) (Edo -- 130,000 koku)
  • Tokugawa (Shimizu) (Edo -- 100,000 koku)

Sources

 


 

Tokugawa (Hitotsubashi)

 

  • Domain: Edo
  • Stipend: 130,000 koku
  • Class: Sankyo
  • Headquarters: Municipal office

Branch established in 1741 by the Shogun Yoshimune in favor of his son Munetada (1721-1764).

Succession

  • Munetada (1721-1765, family head 1735-1764)
  • Harusada (1751-1827, family head 1764-1799)
  • Nariatsu (1780-1816, family head 1799-1816)
  • Narinori (1803-1830, family head 1816-1830)
  • Narikura (1818-1837, family head 1830-1837)
  • Yoshimasa (1825-1838, family head 1837-1838)
  • Yoshinaga (1823-1847, family head 1838-1847)
  • Shomaru (1846-1847, family head 1847)
  • Yoshinobu (1837-1913, family head 1847-1866)

  • Mochinaga/Mochiharu (1831-1884, family head 1866- )

Related Branches

  • Tokugawa (Tayasu) (Edo -- 130,000 koku)
  • Tokugawa (Shimizu) (Edo -- 100,000 koku)

Sources

 


 

Tokugawa (Shimizu)

 

  • Domain: Edo
  • Stipend: 100,000 koku
  • Class: Sankyo
  • Headquarters: Municipal office

Branch founded by Shigeyoshi (1745-1795), son of the Shogun Ieshige.

Succession

  • Shigeyoshi (1745-1795, family head 1758-1795)
  • Atsunosuke (1796-1799, family head 1798-1799)
  • Nariyuki (1801-1846, family head 1805-1816)
  • Narinori (1810-1827, family head 1816-1827)
  • Narikatsu (1820-1849, family head 1827-1846)
  • Akitake (1853-1910, family head 1866-1868)
  • Atsumori (1856-1924, family head 1870- )

Related Branches

  • Tokugawa (Tayasu) (Edo -- 130,000 koku)
  • Tokugawa (Hitotsubashi) (Edo -- 130,000 koku)

Sources

 


 

Matsudaira (Okudaira)

 

  • Domain: Oshi
  • Stipend: 100,000 koku
  • Class: Fudai 4
  • Headquarters: Oshi Castle

Branch of the Okudaira family.

Senior branch, which in 1700, after the death of Tadahiro, resided at Fukuyama (Bingo); in 1710 at Kuwana (Ise); and in 1823 at Oshi.

Succession

  • Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616)
  • Okudaira Nobumasa
  • Tadaakira/Tadaaki (1583-1644) - Daimyo of Kameyama (Ise -- 50,000 koku); daimyo of Koriyama (Yamato -- 120,000 koku); 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Himeji (Harima -- 180,000 koku)
  • Tadaaki
  • Tadahiro (1628-1700) - Daimyo of Yamagata (Dewa -- 150,000 koku), 1st tenure; daimyo of Utsunomiya (Shimotsuke -- 150,000 koku); daimyo of Shirakawa (Mutsu -- 150,000 koku); 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Yamagata (Dewa -- 100,000 koku), 2nd tenure
  • Tadamasa - 2nd Matsudaira daimyo of Yamagata; daimyo of Fukuyama (Bingo -- 100,000 koku); 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Kuwana (Ise -- 100,000 koku)
  • Tadatoki
  • Tadahira
  • Tadakatsu
  • Tadatomo
  • Tadasuke
  • Tadaaki
  • Tadataka - 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Oshi
  • Tadasato
  • Tadakuni
  • Tadazane
  • Tadanori

Notable Ancestors

  • Matsudaira Tadaakira/Tadaaki (1583-1644)

Son of Nobumasa, was adopted by Ieyasu, whose grandson he was, and received for himself and his posterity the name of Matsudaira. He resided successively: in 1602 at Sakute (Mikawa): in 1610 at Kameyama (Ise -- 50,000 koku); in 1615 at Osaka (Settsu -- 100,000 koku); in 1619 at Koriyama (Yamato -- 120,000 koku); in 1639 at Himeji (Harima -- 180,000 koku).

  • Matsudaira Tadahiro (1628-1700)

In 1648 was transferred to Yamagata (Dewa -- 150,000 koku); in 1668 at Utsunomiya (Shimotsuke); in 1681 at Shirakawa (Mutsu); in 1692 at Yamagata.

Related Branches

  • Junior branch: Obata (Kozuke -- 20,000 koku)

Sources

 


 

Matsudaira (Matsui)

 

  • Domain: Kawagoe
  • Stipend: 80,000 koku
  • Class: Fudai 5
  • Headquarters: Kawagoe Castle (Hilltop)

Daimyo family descended from Minamoto Tameyoshi (1096-1156). Koreyoshi, son of Tameyoshi, resided at Matsui (Yamashiro) and took the name of the place.

Succession

  • Yasushige - Daimyo of Kasama (Hitachi -- 30,000 koku); daimyo of Sasayama (Tanba -- 50,000 koku); 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Kishiwada (Izumi -- 50,000 koku)
  • Yasuteru - 2nd Matsudaira daimyo of Kishiwada; daimyo of Yamazaki (Harima -- 50,000 koku); 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Hamada (Iwami -- 50,000 koku)
  • Yasunori
  • Yasukazu
  • Yasutoyo
  • Yasuyoshi
  • Yasutaka - 5th Matsudaira daimyo of Hamada; 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Tanakura (Mutsu -- 60,400 koku)
  • Yasukado
  • Yasuhiro
  • Yasuteru (daimyo 1866-1869) - 4th Matsudaira daimyo of Tanakura; 1st Matsudaira daimyo of Kawagoe
  • Yasutoshi (daimyo 1869- )

Notable Ancestors

  • Matsui Yasuchika (1521-1583)

Served Ieyasu, who authorized him to take the name of Matsudaira. Took part in the campaigns against the Imagawa, the Asakura, the Asai, the Takeda, and received a revenue of 20,000 koku in Suruga.

  • Matsui Yasushige (1568-1640)

Resided successively: in 1590 at Yorii (Musashi -- 20,000 koku); in 1601 at Kasama (Hitachi -- 30,000 koku); in 1608 at Yamaki (Tanba -- 50,000 koku); in 1615 at Sasayama (Tanba); in 1619 at Kishiwada (Izumi -- 60,000 koku).

His descendants were transferred: in 1640 at Yamazaki (Harima); in 1649 at Hamada (Iwami); in 1759 at Koga (Shimosa); in 1762 at Okazaki (Mikawa); in 1769 at Hamada (Iwami -- 70,000 koku); in 1836 at Tanakura (Mutsu -- 75,000 koku); and finally in 1866 at Kawagoe.

Sources

 


 

Ooka

 

  • Domain: Iwatsuki
  • Stipend: 20,000 koku
  • Class: Fudai 5
  • Headquarters: Iwatsuki Castle (Flatland)

Family of daimyo originating in Mikawa and descended from Fujiwara (Kujo) Norizane (1210-1235).

Younger branch ennobled in 1751 in the person of Tadamitsu (1709-1760); from 1756 resided at Iwatsuki.

Succession

  • Tadamasa
  • Tadayoshi
  • Tadafusa
  • Tadanori
  • Tadatoshi
  • ...
  • Tadamitsu (1709-1760) - 1st Ooka daimyo of Iwatsuki
  • Tadayoshi
  • Tadatoshi
  • Tadayasu
  • Tadamasa
  • Tadakata
  • Tadayuki
  • Tadatsura

Related Branches

  • Elder branch: Nishi-Ohira (Mikawa -- 10,000 koku)

Sources

 


 

Abe

 

  • Domain: Okabe
  • Stipend: 20,000 koku
  • Class: Fudai 5
  • Headquarters: Municipal office

Family of daimyo originating in Suruga and descended from the Shigeno branch of the Seiwa--Genji. In 1636 established at Hambara (Mikawa); in 1751 they were transferred to Okabe, where they remained.

Succession

  1. Nobumori
  2. Nobuyuki
  3. Nobutomo
  4. Nobumine
  5. Nobukata
  6. Nobuhira
  7. Nobuchika
  8. Nobumichi
  9. Nobumochi
  10. Nobuyori
  11. Nobuhisa (disgraced)
  12. Nobutaka
  13. Nobuoki

Sources

 


 

Yonekura

 

  • Domain: Mutsuura (Kanazawa)
  • Stipend: 12,000 koku
  • Class: Fudai 5
  • Headquarters: Municipal office

Daimyo family descended from Minamoto Yoshimitsu (Seiwa-Genji). In 1696 made noble, it resided at Kanazawa.

Succession

  • Tadasuke
  • Satonari (unranked)
  • Masaharu
  • Masakata
  • Masayoshi
  • Masanori
  • Masanaka
  • Masakoto

Sources

 

 


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